CTET Notes on Social Studies Free PDF || Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total of 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography, and Political Science, and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section. Here, we are providing important Complete study notes on Social Studies which will be very helpful for upcoming CTET and other teaching exams.

CTET Notes on History-   Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

Iron Tools and Agriculture

People in the Indian subcontinent first started using iron about 3000 years ago.

We know this because many iron tools such as axes, plowshares, etc. were found from many ancient megalithic (made of stone) burial sites.

People of that time also developed different methods (such as transplantation, usage of new tools, irrigation through canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes) to increase agricultural production.

Who lived in the villages?

Three main kinds of people lived in the northern and the southern parts of the Indian subcontinent.

In the Tamil-speaking regions, they were called vellalar (large land owners), 

uzahavar (ordinary ploughmen), and 

kadaisiyar or adimai (landless labourers).


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