509 (Block 2) NIOS D.El.Ed- Most Important Question Answer for 4th Semester Examination, 2019

NIOS D.El.Ed Question Answer 508 & 509- Hello D.El.Ed friends, We have prepared important long questions from course 508 and 509  in PDF format with free of cost. All Important long questions from Course 509 Block 2 is given in this PDF file. NIOS D.El.Ed Question Answer 508 & 509. Most Important Question Answer for 4th Semester Examination, 2019
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Q1. Discuss the importance of history as a part of
social science curriculum.

Ans- social science deals with the
study of the society and
human relationships. Its study
while on one hand helps in the desired knowledge
and understanding of the society and the human relationship, it
also on the other
hand, fulfils the
responsibility of preparing the youngsters for contributing towards
the progress and well being of their society and
nation. These are discussed below:

Firstly, the world has become a small place due to
scientific and

technological revolution in the 21st century. For
peaceful living and

sustenance of human being on earth, there is need
for mutual goodwill and understanding among the big and small nations across
the globe. Therefore, there is a common desire among peoples to know each other
better. In this respect the study of history fulfils their need.

Secondly, it is logical to treat history a temporal
canvas against which the facts learned in other subjects can be arranged.
Science and mathematics are learned in other subjects from history in the mind
of the child; yet a well-planned syllabus of history can help to set scientific
discoveries and the invention of mathematical techniques in an historical
perspective. For example the stories of transport and communication of tools
and machines of foods and medicines, make it possible for the child to have a
more broad understanding of science and mathematics.

Thirdly, the teaching of history develops ethical
values in the learners. It inculcates in young minds moral laws of right and
wrong. It fosters patriotism in our children. They would feel a sense of pride
by the knowledge of our rich cultural heritage and glory of the past, which
would instill in them a sense of love for the motherland.

Fourthly, techings of history can generate in
students the interest of studying the deeds of great men. This interest helps
them study the lives of great men and women. With this study, their feelings
are directed towards the higher ideals and values.

Fifthly, teachings of history helps our children
understand how people in other times and places have grappled with fundamental
questions of truth, justice and personal responsibility and ponder over how we
deal with the same issues today. By studying the humanities and examining the
ideas of great thinkers, major religions and principal philosophical
traditions, our students will reflect on the various ways that people have
struggled throughout time , and ethical issues, Based on reflections, they will
consider what consequences are for us today.

Lastly, it helps our children in gaining powers of
memory, imagination and reasoning.

Q2. Discuss the source
of history.

Ans- that historians always depend on multiple sources
to get clear cut information on past happenings.

1. Archaeological Sources: There include three types of sources such as:

a) Monumental findings including buildings, images,
pottery and terracotta figures and other antiques.

b) Numismatic evidence is collected from the study
of coins.

c) Epigraphic includes inscriptions on stone slabs,
pillars, rocks, copper

plates, walls of buildings, bricks of terracotta,
stone seals and images.

2. Literary sources: These sources can be divided under three groups:
a) Sacred or religious literature- the Vedas, the
Epics, the Puranas,
Buddhist religious literature, the religious books
of the Jains, etc.
b) Secular literature- it can be divided into two
classes- private literature and official literature. Private literature
includes dramas, novels, poems, books on grammar and astronomy, medicine and
art, biographies, autobiographies, diaries, travelers’ account. Official
orders, dispatches, sanads, decisions of the law courts come in the category of
official literature.
d) Foreign testimony-Accounts written by foreigners
like F-Hein, Megasthenes, come in this category.
3. Oral Traditions are
very helpful in imparting information about local history. Tod’s annals,
Dipvamsa and Mahavamsa come under this source. If we
category all the sources of historical happenings on the recordings,they can be
brought under two major headings-
Primary Sources and Secondary Sources.

Let’s discuss in detail these sources.
1) Primary Sources: These sources are the accounts prepared by persons who were
either directly connected with an event or were eye-witnesses to it. Minutes of
parliamentary and judicial proceedings, laws, treaties, official papers of
states, autobiographies come under this source. Evidence from the time, such as
the census, letters between people, video film footage, radio, newspapers,
witness accounts, books, artwork and physical discoveries i.e. tomb’s, bullets
from battles ,also come under this source etc.

2) Secondary Sources: These are the sources which were prepared by persons who were
far away from the scene of actual happenings but who took help of the
eye-witness accounts in preparing them. The standard historical works of
various periods generally based on original accounts may be classified as
secondary sources like books written on a period, debate, recent newspapers,
interviews with experts on a period, etc.

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Q3. What is Concept
Mapping? What are the steps of concept mapping? How concept mapping helps
teacher to make the concept of a topic clear for students?
Ans- A concept map is a type of graphic organizer used
to help students organize and represent knowledge of a subject. When created
correctly and thoroughly, concept mapping is a powerful tool for your students
to reach high levels of cognitive performance. As students create concept maps,
they reiterate ideas using their own words and help identify incorrect ideas
and concepts; in that situation you will be able to observe what students do
not understand, providing an accurate, objective way to evaluate areas in which
students do not yet grasp concepts fully. The steps of concept map has been
discussed below:
Start with a main idea, topic,
or issue
: A helpful way to determine the context of your
concept map is to choose a focus question—something that needs to be solved or
a conclusion that needs to be reached. Once a topic or question is decided on,
building with the hierarchical structure of the concept map becomes easy.
Determine the subordinate
Find the subordinate concepts that connect and
relate to your main idea and rank them; most general, inclusive concepts come
first, then link to smaller, more specific concepts.
Finish by connecting
concepts—creating linking phrases and words:
the basic links between the concepts are created, add cross-links,
which connect concepts in different areas of the
map, to further illustrate the relationships and strengthen student’s understanding
and knowledge
on the topic.

Q4. Discuss the
approaches of Geography.

Ans- Geography is merged/ mingled or integrated science
and a synthesis (combiner of parts) of knowledge. Discipline of geography draws
its content from various natural sciences like Geology, Meteorology, Hydrology,
Petrology, Botany, Zoology and Social Sciences like Economics, Demography,
Political Science, History, Philosophy, Anthropology, and Sociology. It can be
concluded that geography is an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary subject
of study. there are two major approaches.

Systematic Approach: In systematic approach a phenomenon is studied as a whole.
This is also known as topical approach through which we study particular
phenomenon in detail and in holistic manner in a given region. For example, if
one has to study climate, than he/she will be studying various aspects of
climate like concept, factors affecting climate, elements of climate, climatic
types, and climatic regions of the world.

Regional Approach: In the regional approach, the world is divided into regions at
different hierarchical levels and then all the geographical phenomena in a
particular region are studied. These regions may be natural, political or
designated regions. The phenomena in a region are studied in holistic manner
searching for unity in diversity. For example when we select a region, for example
geography of our own state, then we tend to study relief, drainage, climate,
soils, natural vegetation, minerals, human resources, economic activities,
trade, transportation and communication of our state. The approach followed in
this case is regional approach.

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Q5. Justify
the rational of teaching Geography at upper primary level in Social Sciences

So far, we have studied about geography as a component of social
sciences. By this time we have fair idea about the need, nature, content
matter, approaches, and branches of geography. In this section, we will deal
with the specific rationale of teaching geography at the Upper Primary Stage
and also get ourselves acquainted with objectives of teaching geography at this
stage In this subsection, we acquaint you with the rationale of teaching
geography at the upper primary level drawn on the basis of National Curriculum
Framework 2005. We are aware of that Geography is an integral component of
social sciences. At this stage learners are introduced to the basic concepts
necessary for understanding the world in which they live. Geography is
introduced to enhance the understanding of interdependence of various regions
and countries. The child is introduced to the contemporary issues such as
global distribution of economic resources, gender, marginalised group, and
environment and ongoing process of globalisation. The course, at this stage,
comprises the earth as the habitat of humankind, study of environment,
resources, and development at different levellocal, regional/national and the

major objectives of the course are as under:

Develop an understanding about the earth as the habitat of humankind and  other forms of life.

Initiate the learner into a study of her/his own region, state and country in  the global context.

Introduce the global distribution of economic resources and the ongoing  process of globalisation

Promote the understanding of interdependence of various regions and  countries.

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Q6. Discuss the methods/approaches in understanding
Ans- Sociology
is the study of the society. Sociology studies the different aspects of the
society i.e. social norms, regulations, processes, values, structures,
functions, etc. ocial scientists use numerous methods to study the society.
Each method has its own strengths and limitations depending upon the context of
studying the society. Some of the important methods/ approaches used by the
social scientists in understanding sociology are discussed below:
Historical approach
Historical sociology (sociology based on historical
method) studies societies of remote as well as recent past to discover origins
of, and find explanations for, our present way of life. Historical approach to
study of the society basically follows two forms i.e. (i) historical approach
is influenced by biological theory of evolution, and (ii) historical approach
influence by economic interpretations. The fist approach concentrates on the
issues relating to the origin and development of societies. Comte and Spencer
used this approach to study the society. The second approach is basically used
by Max Weber in his studies of origin of capitalism, the development of modern
bureaucracy and the economic influence of the world religions.

Comparative approach
Comparative approach uses/applies logical principles
on social phenomenon in order to eliminate the factors which are not essential
and arrive at the factors which are essential. Comparative approach in the
field of sociology studies past or existing societies and social institutions
by a process of selection, comparison and elimination in order to arrive at
proper generalization. Comparison is made among contemporary societies which
have common historical, political and many other characteristics. In natural
science, scientist can establish causal connection by experiment. But in study
of social setting, experiment is hardly possible. Hence, social scientists
establish causal connections by examining cases in which two or more phenomena
are simultaneously present or absent.

Functionalist approach
Functionalist approach has profound influence on
modern sociological theorizing. This method, in fact, is an outcome of the
reaction against evolutionary method. In fact, functionalist approach is considered
more as an approach of interpretation rather than investigation. This approach
is based upon the assumption that a system is based upon a number of its
constituent parts. Each part of the system is interrelated with other parts of
the system. The function of a part of the system is understood in relation to
functions of the other parts of the system. In the same way, if society is a
system, its constituent parts are religion, economy, politics, etc.
Statistical approach
This approach is used to study the social phenomenon
in quantitative and objective ways. The social issues relating to birth and
death, divorce, crime, migration, economic condition, public opinion, etc. can
nicely be studied through this approach. This approach is in much use in order
to disclose relationship among different aspects of social phenomenon.

Q7. State the
difference between traditional and modern approaches of studying political science.

Ans- The difference between traditional and modern
approaches of studying political science are state below:

Traditional approaches
Modern approaches
Define political science as the study of
state and its governmental institutions
Define political science as the study of
power and decision making of political behavior
Concentrates on formal apparatus of
politics : government, institutions, constitutions
See politics as an activity or a process service.
Defines political science as a subjective,
theoretical and purpose oriented
Define political science as an objective,
and process oriented task
More philosophical in nature
More analytic in nature
See political science as non observable
and value loaded subject
See political science as observable and
value free subject
Prescriptive and normative. Aim at the
achievement of good society
Insist on quantitative and inductive approach.
Aim at making politics a scientific
body of knowledge
Basically taxonomic and focus on institutions
as the main instrument of social
change and control
Focus on extra political factors and conditions
which affect the behaviour of political
events and institutes.

Q8. Discuss some important methods/approach adopted by
social sciences in understanding Economics.

subject ‘economies’ is in the process of growth and development. Though there
are numerous approaches used by economists in understanding economies, but, among
them few approaches are quite significant and they are discussed below:

Wealth approach of Adam Smith

Adam Smith, the father of economics, defined
economics as the
science of wealth. In this book, Adam Smith emphasized the production and expansion of wealth as the
subject matter of economics. According
to Adam Smith, economics deals with production, distribution and
of wealth and
riches. Production
and expansion of
wealth as the subject matter of economics has been stated by
Adam Smith; but, the critics of this definition
claimed that acquisition of wealth
being the motive of human being’s, is totally baseless. In a
civilized society,
human activities
are guided by many other motives except acquisition of wealth.

Welfare approach of Alfred Marshall
Marshall conceptualized economics as the science of welfare. Criticizing the
wealth definition of Adam Smith, Marshall pointed out that, for economics
wealth isn’t end in itself but it is only a means to an end; the end being the
promotion of human welfare. Marshall’s definition of economics conveys
basically three main points. Firstly, economics is the study of man who remains
at the centre of all economic activities. In other words, it studies man’s
action regarding how he earns wealth and spends it. Secondly, economics is
concerned with a particular aspect of man’s life i.e. ordinary business of
life. Ordinary business of life means how a man gets his living and how he
spends it. Like this ordinary business of life, there are many other aspects of
man’s life-social, political, etc. Thirdly, the primary end of economics is the
promotion of material welfare.

Scarcity and choice approach of Lionel Robbins
Lionel Robbins’ approach to study economics is
somewhat more refined and precise than the approaches of Adam Smith and
Marshall. Robbins brought out a famous book on economics entitled, “An Essay on
the Nature and Significance of Economics Science” in 1931. The approach of
Robbins is based on following principles.
1. Human wants are unlimited
2. Resources are limited/ scare in relation to wants
3. Resources have various alternative uses
4. Whether goods and services would promote welfare
or not is not the concern of economics. Economics should study them (goods and services)
if they satisfy the human wants
5. Economics deals with how resources of the society
should be allocated to satisfy different wants.

Growth approach of Samuelson
Modern economist Samuelson puts forth a growth oriented definition on
economics. According to him, “
economics is the
study of how people and society end up choosing with or without the use of
money, to employ scarce productive resources that would have alternative uses,
to produce various commodities, and distribute them for consumption, now or in
future, among various persons and groups in society. It analyses the costs and
benefits of improving patterns of resources allocations”
. From this definition, the following characteristics can be drawn.
1. Samuelson gave importance on the scarcity of
productive resources, which
have impact on life of the common people.
2. Economics analyses the relative problems
connected with the consumption and distribution of various scarce resources.
3. This definition is wider than the Robbins’
definitions in the sense that it touches both scarcity and growth.
4. It includes both money as well as barter system
in the analysis of the problems of man in respect of economic choice.

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