NIOS D.El.Ed Important Question Answer Course 506 (Unit II)

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Hello D.El.Ed friends, We have prepared important questions from course 506 unit II in PDF format with free of cost. All important questions from Curse 506 Unit II is given in this PDF file.

506 (Unit II)
Marks Question Answer
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Q. What is Heredity?
Answer: All the qualities that a child has
inherited from the parents is called heredity.
Every child comes into
this world with certain physical and mental characteristics which he got from
his parents and ancestors. A child resembles his sisters, brothers, parents,
grand-parents, and other members of the family more than the people not related
to him at all.  He is born with a body
and mind which developed from the fertilized ovum. His limbs and organs grow
from the same. Some of his mental tendencies are also based on the same. This
is all account of the heredity. 
It has been found that a child receives
23 pairs of chromosomes from his parents, 23 from mother and 23 from father.

also refers to the inherited characteristics of an individual, including traits
such as height, eye color, and blood type. 
It is the sum total of the physiological and psychological traits which
a person inherits from his parents. These traits are transmitted through genes
and chromosomes. 
In the words of Peterson Heredity may be defined as “what
gets from his ancestral stock through his parents”. Douglas and Holland says “Heredity
consists of all the structures, physical characteristics, functions or
capacities derived from parents and other ancestors”.
Heredity is of two
types, biological heredity and social heredity. Biological heredity involves
all those physiological and psychological characteristics which a person
inherits from his parents through genes in the chromosomes. Social heredity
refers to all that one generation gets from the proceeding generations in the
form of social customs, traditions, ideals, values, believes, morals, conventions,
skills etc.
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Q. What is Environment?
Answer: Environment is
everything other than heredity, that influences an individual’s growth and
development. It has a very significant effect on human beings. An individual’s
environment is related to all those stimuli which he goes on facing almost
continuously from the moment of fertilization
to Anastaxi “The environment is everything that affects the individual except
his genes”. Douglas and Holland “the term environment is the aggregate of all
the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature,
behavior, the growth, and development and maturation of living organisms”.
The term mental environment means the atmosphere necessary for the
mental development of a person. If the library, laboratory, curricular and
co-curricular activities are properly organized, the child would achieve the
desired intellectual development. Therefore, teachers should try to provide
best mental environment, workshop, museum, clubs, associations, debate,
symposia etc., must be encouraged.
Q. Discuss relative
significances of heredity and Environment
Answer: Both heredity and environment have
important roles to play in shaping the personality of an individual. In
psychology, this has been called as the nature vs nurture debate. Nature refers
to the innate tendencies of the individual caused by the fact that he belongs
to a particular family and has inherited the genes and mannerisms of his family
and he has also some inborn qualities. Of this, the traits he has inherited are
a very influential factor in his development. Our physical structure, color of
our eyes, height, even mannerisms are inherited.
It has been found that a child receives 23 pairs of
chromosomes from his parents, 23 from mother and 23 from father. Genes present
in these chromosomes are transferred from parents to the offspring. It is
possible for the species to evolve by mix and match in the genes. Twins are
found to have similar IQs and characteristics though they may have been raised
separately. On the other hand, environment has been found to play a major role
in development as well. The superior biological factors do not work if a
conducive environment has not been provided to the child.
A disturbed
environment in the house can produce anxieties in the child, which can hamper
his healthy growth. In the formative years, if the child does not get proper
nutrition, physical growth will be affected even though he has healthy genes.
Researches have shown that proper language development takes place if the child
is exposed to the language in childhood and he gets a proper environment to
learn it. In adulthood spontaneous and up to the mark language learning does
not take place. Thus, we can conclude this role of the two factors is not
debatable. In fact, both the factors work hand in hand towards ensuring a
complete development of the individual.
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NIOS D.El.Ed Important Question Answer Course 506 Unit I