NIOS D.El.Ed Important Question Answer Course 506 (Part II) English

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Course 506 (Unit I)
5 Marks Question
                                                            YouTube- Digital Assam


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Q:  Elaborate the Stages of Growth from Infancy To Childhood.
Answer: Human development is a lifelong process of physical,
behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change. In the early stages of
life—from babyhood to childhood, childhood to adolescence, and adolescence to
adulthood—enormous changes take place. Throughout the process, each person
develops attitudes and values that guide choices, relationships, and

Sexuality is also a lifelong process. Infants, children,
teens, and adults are sexual beings. Just as it is important to enhance a
child’s physical, emotional, and cognitive growth, so it is important to lay
foundations for a child’s sexual growth. Adults have a responsibility to help
young people understand and accept their evolving sexuality. Read on to learn
more about human growth and development.
Following are the major stages of development:
Birth to 2 years: infancy.
ii) 2 years to 6 years early childhood.
iii) 6 years to 12 years: later childhood.
12 years to 19 years: adolescence.


This period extends from birth to 24 months of
age. This is called the age of trust v/s mistrust. The infant who comes to the
new environment, from mother’s womb needs only nourishment. If the child’s
caretaker, the mother anticipates and fulfills these needs consistently, the
infant learns to trust others, develops confidence. Inevitably the child will
experience moments of anxiety and rejection. If the infant fails to get needed
support and care, it develops mistrust which affects the personality in later
stages of life.
2. Early childhood:
stage ranges from 24 months to 6 years. By second year of life, the muscular
and nervous systems have developed markedly, and the child is eager to acquire
new skills, is no longer content to sit and watch. The child moves around and
examines its environment, but judgment develops more slowly. The child needs
guidance. In the crisis of autonomy v/s doubt faced during this period, the
critical issue is the child’s feeling of independence.
In an
extremely permissive environment, the child encounters difficulties that it
cannot handle, and the child develops doubt about its abilities. Similarly if
the control is severe, the child feels worthless and shameful of being capable
of so little.

 3. Later childhood:

This period ranges from 6-12 years.
During this period the child develops greater attention span, needs less sleep,
and gains rapidly in strength; therefore, the child can expend much more effort
in acquiring skills, and needs accomplishment, regardless of ability. The
crisis faced during this period is industry v/s inferiority.
The child aims to develop a feeling
of competence, rather than inability. The success in this endeavour leads to
further industrious behaviour, failure results in development of feelings of
inferiority. Hence, the caretakers should guide the child to take up
appropriate tasks.

4. Adolescence:

This is a period of transition from
childhood to adulthood which extends from 12-19 years. During this period the
individual attains puberty leading to many changes. These changes have enormous
implications for the individual’s sexual, social, emotional and vocational
life; that is why Stanley Hall has rightly described this period as a “period
of storm and stress”.
These changes make the individual to
find an identity, which means developing an understanding of self, the goals
one wishes to achieve and the work/occupation role. The individual craves for
encouragement and support of caretakers and peer groups. If he is successful he
will develop a sense of self or identity, otherwise he will suffer from role
confusion/ identity confusion.

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Q: How can the teacher help in the
growth and development of a child?
Answer: Teachers play an important role in the growth and development of students.Teachers help students by imparting knowledge and guiding them
through the acquisition of the knowledge. They also ensure that an adequate
environment is provided for the learning function.
The teacher as an agent of the society is
responsible to bring desirable changes the in behaviour of children so that
they may shoulder the responsibilities of a good citizen to accelerate the
process of national development.
A good teacher contributes to a
child’s life today and for all his/her future life,thus:
Meets the needs of the child for security through teacher’s affection, understanding
and consideration and through the accepted place of the family in the community
its unity and its economic stability
Meets the needs of the child for accomplishment through opportunities for work,
with enough success to encourage endeavour, through opportunities for helpful
service to others, through freedom from interference with natural desires for
Provides early social training through experience with other children under supervision,
through vocational guidance, through training in manners and morals, through
help in learning to live in harmony with aims and objectives of other people.
Provides opportunities for mental development through encouragement to do for
him/herself through answering questions, through giving him/her space and
material for play.
The ideal teacher would provide for a child a friendly and hospitable environment
for the development of his/her emotions and abilities and secure relationship
in a group of dignified social status where in he was loved, protected and

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NIOS D.El.Ed Important Question Answer Course 506 (Part1)