NIOS D.El.Ed Important Question Answer Course 506 (Unit 1)


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Hello D.El.Ed friends, We have prepared important questions from course 506 unit 1 in PDF format with free of cost. 
Important Question Answer
Course 506 (Unit 1)   
 Prepared By:  Digital
Assam (YouTube)
Q. What is the Difference between Growth and Development?
Answer: Growth is different from development. But both are correlated and
one is dependent on other. We can say that growth is a part of development,
which is limited in physical changes.
Growth is
physical changes whereas development is overall development of the organism. The
main differences between them are-
(1) Growth
is change of physical aspects of the organism. Development is overall changes
and progressive changes of the organism.
(2) Growth
is cellular but development is organizational.
(3) Growth
is the change in shape, form, structure, size of the body. Development is
structural change and functional progress of the body.
(4) Growth
stops at maturation but development continues till death of the organism.
(5)
Development also includes growth. Growth is a part of development.
(6) Growth
and development go side by side.
(7) Growth
and development is the joint product of heredity and environment.
(8) Growth
is quantitative and development is qualitative in nature.
(9) Growth
can be measured accurately but development is subjective interpretation of
one’s change.
Both growth
and development are interrelated aspects of psychology. There are some basic
differences as per their structure but it is difficult to separate them. They
have some basic similarities also. In study of educational psychology study of
their differences and similarities have equal importance for a teacher.
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Q. Write down the
principles that growth and development follow
.
Answer: Growth is an active dynamic process
involving ceaseless change. The present experience, which children have,
determines the nature and course of subsequent experiences. We have given below
nine principles of growth and development which you can analyse and see if
these are application to children around you.
1. Development
follows a pattern
: Prenatal (before birth) and postnatal (after birth)
development of human beings follows a pattern or a general sequence. Physical
development, motor or language development and intellectual development take
place in definite sequences.
2. Principle of
development direction:
 The direction
of development is ‘cephalo – caudal’ as well as ‘proximodistal’ direction. The
direction of development is from head to limbs i.e, in longitudinal axis called
‘cephalo-caudal’ and from the centre to the periphery called ‘proximodistal’
.The child gains control over its head first, then arms and legs. This means,
the child develops the ability to control arms first and only then can control
fingers and so on.
3. Continuous
Development:
 The process of
development is continuous starting from the conception through birth to
lifelong, i.e., from womb to tomb.
4. Rate of growth
and development is not uniform:
 Though development is continuous, the rate of
growth and development is not uniform. Rapid changes occur in early years and
slow down in later years of life. During adolescence again there is a sudden
rise in growth and development, which slows down in later age of life.
5. Principle of
individual difference:
 With respect
to development, the rate and quality of development in various dimensions
differ from person to person. There is a difference in the growth rate between
boys and girls. Girls mature earlier in comparison to boys. For eg, girls
appear taller and well developed than boys of their same age.
6. Development
proceeds from general to specific responses:
 Responses are first general before they become
specific almost in all dimensions of development. In case of language
development, the child before saying different words, letters, babble different
sounds similarly it sees large objects before seeing small objects. It means
general ability precedes the specific activity in all the phases of child’s
development.
7. Principle of integration: 
By proceeding from general responses to specific response again, these
specific response are integrated from the whole it means there is a movement
from whole to parts and again from parts to whole .
8. Principle of interrelationship:
Development in various aspects of the child is interdependent due to
interrelationships. Development of one dimension in social aspect influences
emotional development; and, in effect, all the dimensions of development relate
with or influence each other.
9. Predictability:
The rate of growth and development of each child gives scope to predict the
future development either physically or intellectually.


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Q. Elaborate on two major
factors affecting growth and development in children
Answer: Right from conception, the beginning
of life in a mother’s womb, the growth and development of human beings is
influenced by a variety of factors categorized broadly as internal and
external. Let us discuss these factors as follows.
All those
factors which lie within the individual are called internal factors.
These
factors include:
1. Heredity
factors
2.
Biological or constitutional factors
3. Intelligence
4. Emotional factors
5. Social nature
 Let us discuss the influence of these internal
factors on the growth and development of children.
1.
Heredity factors:
the heredity
factors play their part at the time of conception in the mother’s womb. What is
transferred to the offspring from its immediate parents in the form of genes
and chromosomes at this time constitutes the hereditary contribution. This
contribution is the real starting point and basis for all the growth and
development that take place later in the life of the child. The height, weight,
colour of the eyes and the skin, the characteristics of the hair, are all
decided by these hereditary influences. The physical structure, nervous system
and other things related to one’s constitutional make-up, body chemistry and
physical development are, to a great extent, decided by hereditary factors.
2.
Biological and constitutional factors:

A child’s constitutional make-up somatic structure, physique and body chemistry
influence his/her growth and development throughout his/her life. This can be
substantiated in the following manner;
1. A child who is physically weak or have internal
deformities cannot be expected to achieve satisfactory results in terms of his
normal physical growth and development. He/she usually suffers from illness
which not only hampers his/her physical growth but also affect his/her
development in other spheres – mental, social and emotional.
2. The nervous system which controls the body movement,
affects the growth and development of a child in cognitive spheres.
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